I am all about teaching students to use strategies when adding and subtracting. Our second grade standards ask students to fluently add and subtract within 20, but to become fluent, students need to take ownership of the math facts and create their own pathways to finding the solution.
What I like to do is present students with a variety of strategies and then see what resonates with each student and helps them become a more efficient math fact solver. In a previous post, I touched on the importance of Developing 10 as a Benchmark Number . I also gave an example of some math stations that we use when adding +8 and +9 math facts.
In this blog post, I’m going in-depth on how to scaffold using 10 to add and subtract by developing some make 10 and add 10 strategies. The worksheets you see below are from my Addition and Subtraction within 20: Make 10, Add 10, Use 10 to Add, Use 10 to Subtract resource. This resource contains 200 pages of worksheets that approach these concepts in a variety of ways, from number bonds, ten frames, number lines, and fun partner games.
I differentiate between Make 10, Add 10, and Use 10. Make 10 is simply finding two numbers that add up to 10, like 7+3. Add 10 is adding 10, like 10 +7. Use 10 is finding a make 10 fact that you can use to find the answer. This is generally to a +8 and +9 fact, although it can be used with other numbers, too.
Most of the worksheets you see below are duplicated for each of the concepts with different numbers in place. Answer keys are included for all but the partner games.
Make 10 is the foundational skill for most of the addition strategies I teach in second grade. Sure, kids learn their doubles facts and their plus one and plus two facts, but when we learn about being efficient mathematical thinkers it’s all about the higher level strategies using make 10 as a foundation.
We work on match ten strips and matching ten frames. These two worksheets are easier version of the concept as they just require matching.
This one asks students to explain their thinking, which is a higher level skill. I include both ten frames and ten strips because students will resonate with different models. I want students to be able to think flexibly no matter the model.
Number bonds are another great tool to use in the classroom. Students generally learn to use them in kindergarten and first grade, so it’s not a new tool; however, I want my second graders to become fluent in using them no matter the orientation of the number bond. I’ve created this sheet of number bonds in all different directions so that students have practice orienting themselves.
After working with two ten frames, I ask students to create one of the ten frames and write the fact family. This one helps them see the pattern and practices both addition and subtraction when writing the fact family.
Add 10 is a pretty easy skill for students to develop so we don’t spend too long on it. However, it isn’t one to skip. Why? When students start using number lines and making jumps of ten when adding and subtracting two-digit numbers, having this skill as a foundation will really help them see the patterns with the larger numbers.
Above is the number bond sheet. You’ll notice that I continue the various orientations There are several versions of the number bond sheet with a variety of numbers.
This is a good one to help see the combination of ten frames and digits. Students will develop fluency when they see that the digit in the ones place is the same as that in the ten frame on the right. One thing I love about my cut and paste worksheets is that students have all of the answers right there on the worksheet.
This is a fun partner game. Students spin the spinner and add 10 to the digit that was spun. This helps students develop mental math skills while having fun with a classmate. Students can play an easy version of the game where they simply color squares or play a more challenging version where they have to connect four squares together.
Use 10 to Add and Subtract
Finally, we are at our ultimate goal, having students use 10 to add and subtract numbers with sums between 10 and 20. This is the place where we want students to develop a variety of strategies and ways of breaking apart numbers. In this section are a variety of worksheets for breaking apart one of the addends.
In the above sheet, students cut out and match the tend frames that have the same value. If students need to, they can count the dots, but I’m hoping at this point students can move the dots over to find the equivalent ten frame set. After matching, students write the equations that go with the ten frames.
This is another cut and paste worksheet that asks students to do the math without ten frames. I generally provide students with ten frames and counters to use, but often with the amount of practice that we’ve done, most of my students can do it without the ten frames. There are many more equations on this page and they are all +8 and +9 facts. I find that most students will use a ten to add when adding +8 and +9 facts, but not with +7 and +6 facts. It’s just a little bit far of a jump.
Number lines are one of my favorite tools to use when adding two and three-digit numbers. We start our number line work with single-digit addition by breaking apart one of the addends when adding +9 and +8 facts. The idea is to jump to the ten then make the remaining jumps to the sum. Included are a couple varieties of number line worksheets to give students a lot of practice.
How to Purchase
You can purchase these Addition and Subtraction within 20: Make 10, Add 10, Use 10 to Add, Use 10 to Subtract resources on my website or on Teachers Pay Teachers.
In addition to the Addition & Subtraction within 20 printables, I also have a set of math stations and centers which are specifically for Using 10 to Add +9 and +8. I developed these math stations last year, after I noticed that my students needed a little more practicing with using 10 as a benchmark number. These products are also available on TpT.
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Filed Under: MathTagged With: add 10, addition strategies, make 10, use 10 to add, worksheets
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