Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July1918 – 5 December2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black chief executive, and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997. He was the co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize with F.W. de Klerk in 1993.
- There are thousands of people who feel that it is useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and non-violence — against a government whose only reply is savage attacks on an unarmed and defenceless people. And I think the time has come for us to consider, in the light of our experiences at this day at home, whether the methods which we have applied so far are adequate.
- Ethiopia has always held a special place in my own imagination and the prospect of visiting attracted me more strongly than a trip to France, England and America combined. I felt I would be visiting my own genesis, unearthing the roots of what made me an African. Meeting the emperor himself would be like shaking hands with history.
- On a 1961 conference held in Ethiopia, as quoted in Rivonia Unmasked (1965) by Strydom Lautz, p. 108; also in Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Nelson Mandela : An Ecological Study (2002), by J. C. Buthelezi, p. 172
First court statement (1962)
- Statement on charges of inciting persons to strike illegally, and of leaving the country without a valid passport.
- In its proper meaning equality before the law means the right to participate in the making of the laws by which one is governed, a constitution which guarantees democratic rights to all sections of the population, the right to approach the court for protection or relief in the case of the violation of rights guaranteed in the constitution, and the right to take part in the administration of justice as judges, magistrates, attorneys-general, law advisers and similar positions.
In the absence of these safeguards the phrase 'equality before the law', in so far as it is intended to apply to us, is meaningless and misleading. All the rights and privileges to which I have referred are monopolized by whites, and we enjoy none of them. The white man makes all the laws, he drags us before his courts and accuses us, and he sits in judgement over us.
- It is fit and proper to raise the question sharply, what is this rigid color-bar in the administration of justice? Why is it that in this courtroom I face a white magistrate, am confronted by a white prosecutor, and escorted into the dock by a white orderly? Can anyone honestly and seriously suggest that in this type of atmosphere the scales of justice are evenly balanced?
Why is it that no African in the history of this country has ever had the honor of being tried by his own kith and kin, by his own flesh and blood?
I will tell Your Worship why: the real purpose of this rigid color-bar is to ensure that the justice dispensed by the courts should conform to the policy of the country, however much that policy might be in conflict with the norms of justice accepted in judiciaries throughout the civilised world.
- I haterace discrimination most intensely and in all its manifestations. I have fought it all during my life; I fight it now, and will do so until the end of my days. Even although I now happen to be tried by one whose opinion I hold in high esteem, I detest most violently the set-up that surrounds me here. It makes me feel that I am a black man in a white man's court. This should not be.
I am Prepared to Die (1964)
- Statement in the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria Supreme Court (20 April 1964)
- I must deal immediately and at some length with the question of violence. Some of the things so far told to the Court are true and some are untrue. I do not, however, deny that I planned sabotage. I did not plan it in a spirit of recklessness, nor because I have any love of violence. I planned it as a result of a calm and sober assessment of the political situation that had arisen after many years of tyranny, exploitation, and oppression of my people by the Whites.
- I have already mentioned that I was one of the persons who helped to form Umkhonto. I, and the others who started the organization, did so for two reasons. Firstly, we believed that as a result of Government policy, violence by the African people had become inevitable, and that unless responsible leadership was given to canalize and control the feelings of our people, there would be outbreaks of terrorism which would produce an intensity of bitterness and hostility between the various races of this country which is not produced even by war. Secondly, we felt that without violence there would be no way open to the African people to succeed in their struggle against the principle of white supremacy. All lawful modes of expressing opposition to this principle had been closed by legislation, and we were placed in a position in which we had either to accept a permanent state of inferiority, or to defy the Government. We chose to defy the law. We first broke the law in a way which avoided any recourse to violence; when this form was legislated against, and then the Government resorted to a show of force to crush opposition to its policies, only then did we decide to answer violence with violence...
- But the violence which we chose to adopt was not terrorism. We who formed Umkhonto were all members of the African National Congress, and had behind us the ANC tradition of non-violence and negotiation as a means of solving political disputes. We believe that South Africa belongs to all the people who live in it, and not to one group, be it black or white. We did not want an interracial war, and tried to avoid it to the last minute. If the Court is in doubt about this, it will be seen that the whole history of our organization bears out what I have said, and what I will subsequently say, when I describe the tactics which Umkhonto decided to adopt.
- During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for. But, my lord, if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.
- The ANC has never at any period of its history advocated a revolutionary change in the economic structure of the country, nor has it, to the best of my recollection, ever condemned capitalist society.
- Only free men can negotiate; prisoners cannot enter into contracts. Your freedom and mine cannot be separated.
- Refusing to bargain for freedom after 21 years in prison, as quoted in TIME (25 February 1985)
- I stand here before you not as a prophet but as a humble servant of you, the people. Your tireless and heroic sacrifices have made it possible for me to be here today. I therefore place the remaining years of my life in your hands.
- Speech on the day of his release, Cape Town (11 February 1990)
- In Natal, apartheid is a deadly cancer in our midst, setting house against house, and eating away at the precious ties that bound us together. This strife among ourselves wastes our energy and destroys our unity. My message to those of you involved in this battle of brother against brother is this: take your guns, your knives, and your pangas, and throw them into the sea! Close down the death factories. End this war now!
- We are deeply concerned, both in our country and here, of the very large number of dropouts by schoolchildren. This is a very disturbing situation, because the youth of today are the leaders of tomorrow... try as much as possible to remain in school, because education is the most powerful weapon which we can use.
- A critical, independent and investigative press is the lifeblood of any democracy. The press must be free from state interference. It must have the economic strength to stand up to the blandishments of government officials. It must have sufficient independence from vested interests to be bold and inquiring without fear or favour. It must enjoy the protection of the constitution, so that it can protect our rights as citizens.
- When in 1977, the United Nations passed the resolution inaugurating the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian people, it was asserting the recognition that injustice and gross human rights violations were being perpetrated in Palestine. In the same period, the UN took a strong stand against apartheid; and over the years, an international consensus was built, which helped to bring an end to this iniquitous system. But we know too well that our freedom is incomplete without the freedom of the Palestinians; without the resolution of conflicts in East Timor, the Sudan and other parts of the world.
- Address at The International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People (4 December 1997)
Our March to Freedom is Irreversible (1990)
- Friends, Comrades and fellow South Africans. I greet you all in the name of peace, democracy and freedom for all. I stand here before you not as a prophet but as a humble servant of you, the people. Your tireless and heroic sacrifices have made it possible for me to be here today. I therefore place the remaining years of my life in your hands.
- The majority of South Africans, black and white, recognize that apartheid has no future. It has to be ended by our own decisive mass action in order to build peace and security. The mass campaign of defiance and other actions of our organization and people can only culminate in the establishment of democracy.
- There must be an end to white monopoly on political power, and a fundamental restructuring of our political and economic systems to ensure that the inequalities of apartheid are addressed and our society thoroughly democratized.
- Our march to freedom is irreversible. We must not allow fear to stand in our way. Universal suffrage on a common voters' roll in a united, democratic and non-racial South Africa is the only way to peace and racial harmony.
Speech at a Rally in Cuba (1991)
Speech at a rally in Cuba marking the 32nd anniversary of the Cuban Revolution (26 July 1991)
- We have long wanted to visit your country and express the many feelings that we have about the Cuban revolution, about the role of Cuba in Africa, southern Africa, and the world. The Cuban people hold a special place in the hearts of the people of Africa. The Cuban internationalists have made a contribution to African independence, freedom, and justice, unparalleled for its principled and selfless character.
- We admire the achievements of the Cuban revolution in the sphere of social welfare. We note the transformation from a country of imposed backwardness to universal literacy. We acknowledge your advances in the fields of health, education, and science.
- We too are also inspired by the life and example of Jose Marti, who is not only a Cuban and Latin American hero but justly honoured by all who struggle to be free.
- We also honour the great Che Guevara, whose revolutionary exploits, including on our own continent, were too powerful for any prison censors to hide from us. The life of Che is an inspiration to all human beings who cherish freedom. We will always honour his memory.
- I must say that when we wanted to take up arms we approached numerous Western governments for assistance and we were never able to see any but the most junior ministers. When we visited Cuba we were received by the highest officials and were immediately offered whatever we wanted and needed. That was our earliest experience with Cuban internationalism.
- Long live the Cuban revolution! Long live Comrade Fidel Castro!
Speech at the Zionist Christian Church Easter Conference (1992)
- May Peace be with you! We have joined you this Easter in an act of solidarity, and in an act of worship. We have come, like all the other pilgrims, to join in an act of renewal and rededication. The festival of Easter, which is so closely linked with the festival of the Passover, marks the rebirth of the resurrected Messiah, who without arms, without soldiers, without police and covert special forces, without hit squads or bands of vigilantes, overcame the mightiest state during his time. This great festival of rejoicing marks the victory of the forces of life over death, of hope over despair. We pray with you for the blessings of peace! We pray with you for the blessings of love! We pray with you for the blessings of freedom!”
- At his speech in Moria, on 20 April 1992.
- Yes! We affirm it and we shall proclaim it from the mountaintops, that all people – be they black or white, be they brown or yellow, be they rich or poor, be they wise or fools, are created in the image of the Creator and are his children! Those who dare to cast out from the human family people of a darker hue with their racism! Those who exclude from the sight of God's grace, people who profess another faith with their religious intolerance! Those who wish to keep their fellow countrymen away from God's bounty with forced removals! Those who have driven away from the altar of God people whom He has chosen to make different, commit an ugly sin! The sin called Apartheid.
- Also quoted in Nelson Mandela: from freedom to the future: tributes and speeches' (2003), edited by Kader Asmal & David Chidester. Jonathan Ball, p. 332
Nobel Prize acceptance speech (1993)
- Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Address (10 December 1993)
- Together, we join two distinguished South Africans, the late Chief Albert Lutuli and His Grace Archbishop Desmond Tutu, to whose seminal contributions to the peaceful struggle against the evil system of apartheid you paid well-deserved tribute by awarding them the Nobel Peace Prize. It will not be presumptuous of us if we also add, among our predecessors, the name of another outstanding Nobel Peace Prize winner, the late Rev Martin Luther King Jr. He, too, grappled with and died in the effort to make a contribution to the just solution of the same great issues of the day which we have had to face as South Africans.We speak here of the challenge of the dichotomies of war and peace, violence and non-violence, racism and human dignity, oppression and repression and liberty and human rights, poverty and freedom from want.
- We stand here today as nothing more than a representative of the millions of our people who dared to rise up against a social system whose very essence is war, violence, racism, oppression, repression and the impoverishment of an entire people.
- I am also here today as a representative of the millions of people across the globe, the anti-apartheid movement, the governments and organisations that joined with us, not to fight against South Africa as a country or any of its peoples, but to oppose an inhuman system and sue for a speedy end to the apartheid crime against humanity.
These countless human beings, both inside and outside our country, had the nobility of spirit to stand in the path of tyranny and injustice, without seeking selfish gain. They recognised that an injury to one is an injury to all and therefore acted together in defense of justice and a common human decency.
- Because of their courage and persistence for many years, we can, today, even set the dates when all humanity will join together to celebrate one of the outstanding human victories of our century.
When that moment comes, we shall, together, rejoice in a common victory over racism, apartheid and white minority rule.
Victory speech (1994)
- Announcing the ANC election victory, Johannesburg (2 May 1994)
- My fellow South Africans — the people of South Africa:
This is indeed a joyous night. Although not yet final, we have received the provisional results of the election, and are delighted by the overwhelming support for the African National Congress.
To all those in the African National Congress and the democratic movement who worked so hard these last few days and through these many decades, I thank you and honour you. To the people of South Africa and the world who are watching: this a joyous night for the human spirit. This is your victory too. You helped end apartheid, you stood with us through the transition.
- I watched, along with all of you, as the tens of thousands of our people stood patiently in long queues for many hours. Some sleeping on the open ground overnight waiting to cast this momentous vote.
- This is one of the most important moments in the life of our country. I stand here before you filled with deep pride and joy: — pride in the ordinary, humble people of this country. You have shown such a calm, patient determination to reclaim this country as your own, - and joy that we can loudly proclaim from the rooftops — free at last!
- Tomorrow, the entire ANC leadership and I will be back at our desks. We are rolling up our sleeves to begin tackling the problems our country faces. We ask you all to join us — go back to your jobs in the morning. Let's get South Africa working.
For we must, together and without delay, begin to build a better life for all South Africans. This means creating jobs building houses, providing education and bringing peace and security for all.
- The calm and tolerant atmosphere that prevailed during the elections depicts the type of South Africa we can build. It set the tone for the future. We might have our differences, but we are one people with a common destiny in our rich variety of culture, race and tradition.
People have voted for the party of their choice and we respect that. This is democracy.
I hold out a hand of friendship to the leaders of all parties and their members, and ask all of them to join us in working together to tackle the problems we face as a nation. An ANC government will serve all the people of South Africa, not just ANC members.
- Now is the time for celebration, for South Africans to join together to celebrate the birth of democracy. I raise a glass to you all for working so hard to achieve what can only be called a small miracle. Let our celebrations be in keeping with the mood set in the elections, peaceful, respectful and disciplined, showing we are a people ready to assume the responsibilities of government.
I promise that I will do my best to be worthy of the faith and confidence you have placed in me and my organisation, the African National Congress. Let us build the future together, and toast a better life for all South Africans.
Inaugural speech (1994)
- Cape Town, (9 May 1994)
- Today we are entering a new era for our country and its people. Today we celebrate not the victory of a party, but a victory for all the people of South Africa.
Our country has arrived at a decision. Among all the parties that contested the elections, the overwhelming majority of South Africans have mandated the African National Congress to lead our country into the future. The South Africa we have struggled for, in which all our people, be they African, Coloured, Indian or White, regard themselves as citizens of one nation is at hand.
- The names of those who were incarcerated on Robben Island is a roll call of resistance fighters and democrats spanning over three centuries. If indeed this is a Cape of Good Hope, that hope owes much to the spirit of that legion of fighters and others of their calibre.
- In 1980s the African National Congress was still setting the pace, being the first major political formation in South Africa to commit itself firmly to a Bill of Rights, which we published in November 1990. These milestones give concrete expression to what South Africa can become. They speak of a constitutional, democratic, political order in which, regardless of colour, gender, religion, political opinion or sexual orientation, the law will provide for the equal protection of all citizens.
They project a democracy in which the government, whomever that government may be, will be bound by a higher set of rules, embodied in a constitution, and will not be able govern the country as it pleases.
- The people of South Africa have spoken in these elections. They want change! And change is what they will get. Our plan is to create jobs, promote peace and reconciliation, and to guarantee freedom for all South Africans.
Inaugural celebration address (1994)
- Pretoria (10 May 1994)
- Your Majesties, Your Highnesses, Distinguished Guests, Comrades and Friends. Today, all of us do, by our presence here, and by our celebrations in other parts of our country and the world, confer glory and hope to newborn liberty. Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.
- Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans must produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity's belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all.
All this we owe both to ourselves and to the peoples of the world who are so well represented here today.
- We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity. We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challenges of building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism and democracy.
- The time for the healing of the wounds has come.
The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come.
The time to build is upon us.
- We succeeded to take our last steps to freedom in conditions of relative peace. We commit ourselves to the construction of a complete, just and lasting peace.
We have triumphed in the effort to implant hope in the breasts of the millions of our people. We enter into a covenant that we shall build the society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity — a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world.
- We dedicate this day to all the heroes and heroines in this country and the rest of the world who sacrificed in many ways and surrendered their lives so that we could be free.
Their dreams have become reality. Freedom is their reward.
- We are both humbled and elevated by the honour and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist government.
We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom
We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success.
We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world.
Let there be justice for all.
Let there be peace for all.
- Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world.
Let freedom reign!
The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement!
God bless Africa!
Speech at the Zionist Christian Church Easter Conference (1994)
- We bow our heads in worship on this day and give thanks to the Almighty for the bounty He has bestowed upon us over the past year. We raise our voices in holy gladness to celebrate the victory of the risen Christ over the terrible forces of death. Easter is a joyful festival! It is a celebration because it is indeed a festival of hope! Easter marks the renewal of life! The triumph of the light of truth over the darkness of falsehood! Easter is a festival of human solidarity, because it celebrates the fulfilment of the Good News! The Good News borne by our risen Messiah who chose not one race, who chose not one country, who chose not one language, who chose not one tribe, who chose all of humankind! Each Easter marks the rebirth of our faith. It marks the victory of our risen Saviour over the torture of the cross and the grave. Our Messiah, who came to us in the form of a mortal man, but who by his suffering and crucifixion attained immortality. Our Messiah, born like an outcast in a stable, and executed like criminal on the cross. Our Messiah, whose life bears testimony to the truth that there is no shame in poverty: Those who should be ashamed are they who impoverish others. Whose life testifies to the truth that there is no shame in being persecuted: Those who should be ashamed are they who persecute others. Whose life proclaims the truth that there is no shame in being conquered: Those who should be ashamed are they who conquer others. Whose life testifies to the truth that there is no shame in being dispossessed: Those who should be ashamed are they who dispossess others. Whose life testifies to the truth that there is no shame in being oppressed: Those who should be ashamed are they who oppress others.”
- At his speech in Moria, on 3 April 1994
- “Why is it that in this day and age, human beings still butcher one another simply because they dared to belong to different religions, to speak different tongues, or belong to different races? Are human beings inherently evil? What infuses individuals with the ego and ambition to so clamour for power that genocide assumes the mantle of means that justify coveted ends? These are difficult questions, which, if wrongly examined can lead one to lose faith in fellow human beings. And there is where we would go wrong. Firstly, because to lose faith in fellow humans is, as the Archbishop would correctly point out, to lose faith in God and in the purpose of life itself. Secondly, it is erroneous to attribute to the human character a universal trait it does not possess – that of being either inherently evil or inherently humane. I would venture to say that there is something inherently good in all human beings, deriving from, among other things, the attribute of social consciousness that we all possess. And, yes, there is also something inherently bad in all of us, flesh and blood as we are, with the attendant desire to perpetuate and pamper the self. From this premise arises the challenge to order our lives and mould our mores in such a way that the good in all of us takes precedence. In other words, we are not passive and hapless souls waiting for manna or the plague from on high. All of us have a role to play in shaping society.”
- At his speech in Moria, on 3 April 1994
- African National Congress (ANC Historical Documents Archive). Johannesburg, South Africa.
Long Walk to Freedom (1995)
- When a man is denied the right to live the life he believes in, he has no choice but to become an outlaw.
- No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.
- Education is the great engine of personal development. It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor, that the son of a mineworker can become the head of the mine, that a child of farmworkers can become the president of a great nation. It is what we make out of what we have, not what we are given, that separates one person from another.
- A good head and a good heart are always a formidable combination.
- I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.
- In my country we go to prison first and then become President.
- No one truly knows a nation until one has been inside its jails. A nation should not be judged by how it treats its highest citizens but its lowest ones.
- There is nothing like returning to a place that remains unchanged to find the ways in which you yourself have altered.
- The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.
- You may succeed in delaying, but never in preventing the transition of South Africa to a democracy.
- Any man that tries to rob me of my dignity will lose.
- The victory of democracy in South Africa is the common achievement of all humanity.
- The authorities liked to say that we received a balanced diet; it was indeed balanced — between the unpalatable and the inedible.
- Prison itself is a tremendous education in the need for patience and perseverance. It is above all a test of one's commitment.
- I always knew that someday I would once again feel the grass under my feet and walk in the sunshine as a free man.
- I have always believed that exercise is the key not only to physical health but to peace of mind.
- There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires.
- I detest racialism because I regard it as a barbaric thing, whether it comes from a black man or a white man.
- A man does not become a freedom fighter in the hope of winning awards, but when I was notified that I had won the 1993 Nobel peace prize jointly with Mr. F.W. de Klerk, I was deeply moved. The Nobel Peace Prize had a special meaning for me because of its involvement with South Africa... The award was a tribute to all South Africans, and especially to those who fought in the struggle; I would accept it on their behalf.
- I explained to the crowd that my voice was hoarse from a cold and that my physician had advised me not to attend. "I hope that you will not disclose to him that I have violated his instructions," I told them. I congratulated Mr. de Klerk for his strong showing. I thanked all those in the ANC and the democratic movement who had worked so hard for so long. Mrs. Coretta Scott King, the wife of the great freedom fighter Martin Luther King Jr., was on the podium that night, and I looked over to her as I made reference to her husband's immortal words.
"This is one of the most important moments in the life of our country. I stand here before you filled with deep pride and joy--pride in the ordinary, humble people of this country. You have shown such a calm, patient determination to reclaim this country as your own, and now the joy that we can loudly proclaim from the rooftops — Free at last! Free at last! I stand before you humbled by your courage, with a heart full of love for all of you."
- It was during those long and lonely years that my hunger for the freedom of my own people became a hunger for the freedom of all people, white and black. I knew as well as I knew anything that the oppressor must be liberated just as surely as the oppressed. A man who takes away another man's freedom is a prisoner of hatred, he is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow-mindedness. I am not truly free if I am taking away someone else's freedom, just as surely as I am not free when my freedom is taken from me. The oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity.
When I walked out of prison, that was my mission, to liberate the oppressed and the oppressor both. Some say that has now been achieved. But I know that that is not the case. The truth is that we are not yet free; we have merely achieved the freedom to be free, the right not to be oppressed. We have not taken the final step of our journey, but the first step on a longer and even more difficult road. For to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others. The true test of our devotion to freedom is just beginning.
- I have walked that long road to freedom. I have tried not to falter; I have made missteps along the way. But I have discovered the secret that after climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb. I have taken a moment here to rest, to steal a view of the glorious vista that surrounds me, to look back on the distance I have come. But I can rest only for a moment, for with freedom comes responsibilities, and I dare not linger, for my long walk is not yet ended.
- If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner.
- I am fundamentally an optimist. Whether that comes from nature or nurture, I cannot say. Part of being optimistic is keeping one's head pointed toward the sun, one's feet moving forward. There were many dark moments when my faith in humanity was sorely tested, but I would not and could not give myself up to despair. That way lays defeat and death.
The International Day Of Solidarity With The Palestinian People (1997)
- "The International Day Of Solidarity With The Palestinian People", Pretoria (4 December 1997)
- I have come to join you today to add our own voice to the universal call for Palestinian self-determination and statehood. We would be beneath our own reason for existence as government and as a nation, if the resolution of the problems of the Middle East did not feature prominently on our agenda.
- When in 1977, the United Nations passed the resolution inaugurating the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian people, it was asserting the recognition that injustice and gross human rights violations were being perpetrated in Palestine. In the same period, the UN took a strong stand against apartheid; and over the years, an international consensus was built, which helped to bring an end to this iniquitous system.
- We know too well that our freedom is incomplete without the freedom of the Palestinians; without the resolution of conflicts in East Timor, the Sudan and other parts of the world.
- I wish to take this opportunity to pay tribute to these Palestinian and Israeli leaders. In particular, we pay homage to the memory of Yitshak Rabin who paid the supreme sacrifice in pursuit of peace.
- I was called a terrorist yesterday, but when I came out of jail, many people embraced me, including my enemies, and that is what I normally tell other people who say those who are struggling for liberation in their country are terrorists. I tell them that I was also a terrorist yesterday, but, today, I am admired by the very people who said I was one.
- Let's hope that Ken Oosterbroek will be the last person to die.
- Spoken shortly after Inkatha announced that they would participate in the 1994 elections., as quoted in The Bang-Bang Club : Snapshots from a Hidden War (2000) by Greg Marinovich and Joao Silva, p. 168
- I remember we adjourned for lunch and a friendly Afrikaner warder asked me the question, "Mandela, what do you think is going to happen to you in this case?" I said to him, "Agh, they are going to hang us." Now, I was really expecting some word of encouragement from him. And I thought he was going to say, "Agh man, that can never happen." But he became serious and then he said, "I think you are right, they are going to hang you."
- Like slavery and apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings. And overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice. It is the protection of a fundamental human right, the right to dignity and a decent life. While poverty persists, there is no true freedom.
The Sacred Warrior (2000)
- "The Sacred Warrior" — essay on Mohandas Gandhi in TIME magazine (3 January 2000)
- India is Gandhi's country of birth; South Africa his country of adoption. He was both an Indian and a South African citizen. Both countries contributed to his intellectual and moral genius, and he shaped the liberatory movements in both colonial theaters.
He is the archetypal anticolonial revolutionary. His strategy of noncooperation, his assertion that we can be dominated only if we cooperate with our dominators, and his nonviolent resistance inspired anticolonial and antiracist movements internationally in our century.
- The Gandhian influence dominated freedom struggles on the African continent right up to the 1960s because of the power it generated and the unity it forged among the apparently powerless. Nonviolence was the official stance of all major African coalitions, and the South African A.N.C. remained implacably opposed to violence for most of its existence.
- Gandhi remained committed to nonviolence; I followed the Gandhian strategy for as long as I could, but then there came a point in our struggle when the brute force of the oppressor could no longer be countered through passive resistance alone. We founded Umkhonto we Sizwe and added a military dimension to our struggle. Even then, we chose sabotage because it did not involve the loss of life, and it offered the best hope for future race relations. Militant action became part of the African agenda officially supported by the Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.) following my address to the Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa (PAFMECA) in 1962, in which I stated, "Force is the only language the imperialists can hear, and no country became free without some sort of violence."
- Gandhi himself never ruled out violence absolutely and unreservedly. He conceded the necessity of arms in certain situations. He said, "Where choice is set between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence... I prefer to use arms in defense of honor rather than remain the vile witness of dishonor ..."
- Gandhi arrived in South Africa in 1893 at the age of 23. Within a week he collided head on with racism. His immediate response was to flee the country that so degraded people of color, but then his inner resilience overpowered him with a sense of mission, and he stayed to redeem the dignity of the racially exploited, to pave the way for the liberation of the colonized the world over and to develop a blueprint for a new social order.
He left 21 years later, a near maha atma (great soul). There is no doubt in my mind that by the time he was violently removed from our world, he had transited into that state.
He was no ordinary leader. There are those who believe he was divinely inspired, and it is difficult not to believe with them. He dared to exhort nonviolence in a time when the violence of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had exploded on us; he exhorted morality when science, technology and the capitalist order had made it redundant; he replaced self-interest with group interest without minimizing the importance of self. In fact, the interdependence of the social and the personal is at the heart of his philosophy. He seeks the simultaneous and interactive development of the moral person and the moral society.
- His philosophy of Satyagraha is both a personal and a social struggle to realize the Truth, which he identifies as God, the Absolute Morality. He seeks this Truth, not in isolation, self-centeredly, but with the people. He said, "I want to find God, and because I want to find God, I have to find God along with other people. I don't believe I can find God alone. If I did, I would be running to the Himalayas to find God in some cave there. But since I believe that nobody can find God alone, I have to work with people. I have to take them with me. Alone I can't come to Him."
- The sight of wounded and whipped Zulus, mercilessly abandoned by their British persecutors, so appalled him that he turned full circle from his admiration for all things British to celebrating the indigenous and ethnic. He resuscitated the culture of the colonized and the fullness of Indian resistance against the British; he revived Indian handicrafts and made these into an economic weapon against the colonizer in his call for swadeshi — the use of one's own and the boycott of the oppressor's products, which deprive the people of their skills and their capital.
- A great measure of world poverty today and African poverty in particular is due to the continuing dependence on foreign markets for manufactured goods, which undermines domestic production and dams up domestic skills, apart from piling up unmanageable foreign debts. Gandhi's insistence on self-sufficiency is a basic economic principle that, if followed today, could contribute significantly to alleviating Third World poverty and stimulating development.
- Gandhi rejects the Adam Smith notion of human nature as motivated by self-interest and brute needs and returns us to our spiritual dimension with its impulses for nonviolence, justice and equality.
He exposes the fallacy of the claim that everyone can be rich and successful provided they work hard. He points to the millions who work themselves to the bone and still remain hungry.
- He stepped down from his comfortable life to join the masses on their level to seek equality with them. "I can't hope to bring about economic equality... I have to reduce myself to the level of the poorest of the poor."
From his understanding of wealth and poverty came his understanding of labor and capital, which led him to the solution of trusteeship based on the belief that there is no private ownership of capital; it is given in trust for redistribution and equalization. Similarly, while recognizing differential aptitudes and talents, he holds that these are gifts from God to be used for the collective good.
He seeks an economic order, alternative to the capitalist and communist, and finds this in sarvodaya based on nonviolence (ahimsa).
He rejects Darwin's survival of the fittest, Adam Smith's laissez-faire and Karl Marx's thesis of a natural antagonism between capital and labor, and focuses on the interdependence between the two.
He believes in the human capacity to change and wages Satyagraha against the oppressor, not to destroy him but to transform him, that he cease his oppression and join the oppressed in the pursuit of Truth.
We in South Africa brought about our new democracy relatively peacefully on the foundations of such thinking, regardless of whether we were directly influenced by Gandhi or not.
- As we find ourselves in jobless economies, societies in which small minorities consume while the masses starve, we find ourselves forced to rethink the rationale of our current globalization and to ponder the Gandhian alternative.
At a time when Freud was liberating sex, Gandhi was reining it in; when Marx was pitting worker against capitalist, Gandhi was reconciling them; when the dominant European thought had dropped God and soul out of the social reckoning, he was centralizing society in God and soul; at a time when the colonized had ceased to think and control, he dared to think and control; and when the ideologies of the colonized had virtually disappeared, he revived them and empowered them with a potency that liberated and redeemed.
Newsweek interview (2002)
- "Nelson Mandela: The United States of America is a threat to world peace" Newsweek (10 September 2002)
- If I am asked, by credible organizations, to mediate, I will consider that very seriously. But a situation of this nature does not need an individual, it needs an organization like the United Nations to mediate.
We must understand the seriousness of this situation. The United States has made serious mistakes in the conduct of its foreign affairs, which have had unfortunate repercussions long after the decisions were taken.
- You will notice that France, Germany, Russia, China are against this decision. It is clearly a decision that is motivated by George W. Bush's desire to please the arms and oil industries in the United States of America. If you look at those factors, you'll see that an individual like myself, a man who has lost power and influence, can never be a suitable mediator.
- Neither Bush nor Tony Blair has provided any evidence that such weapons exist. But what we know is that Israel has weapons of mass destruction. Nobody talks about that. Why should there be one standard for one country, especially because it is black, and another one for another country, Israel, that is white. … Many people say quietly, but they don't have the courage to stand up and say publicly, that when there were white secretary generals you didn't find this question of the United States and Britain going out of the United Nations. But now that you've had black secretary generals like Boutros Boutros Ghali, like Kofi Annan, they do not respect the United Nations. They have contempt for it. This is not my view, but that is what is being said by many people.
- There is one compromise and one only, and that is the United Nations. If the United States and Britain go to the United Nations and the United Nations says we have concrete evidence of the existence of these weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and we feel that we must do something about it, we would all support it. … There is no doubt that the United States now feels that they are the only superpower in the world and they can do what they like. And of course we must consider the men and the women around the president. Gen. Colin Powell commanded the United States army in peacetime and in wartime during the Gulf war. He knows the disastrous effect of international tension and war, when innocent people are going to die, young men are going to die. He knows and he showed this after September 11 last year. He went around briefing the allies of the United States of America and asking for their support for the war in Afghanistan. Dick Cheney, Rumsfeld, they are people who are unfortunately misleading the president. Because my impression of the president is that this is a man with whom you can do business. But it is the men who around him who are dinosaurs, who do not want him to belong to the modern age.
- I really wanted to retire and rest and spend more time with my children, my grandchildren and of course with my wife. But the problems are such that for anybody with a conscience who can use whatever influence he may have to try to bring about peace, it's difficult to say no.
- On why he continues to be active in social and political issues.
Iraq War speech (2003)
- Speech at the International Women's Forum in Johannesburg (29 January 2003), prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. 
- It's a tragedy what is happening, what Bush is doing. All Bush wants is Iraqi oil. There is no doubt that the U.S. is behaving badly. Why are they not seeking to confiscate weapons of mass destruction from their ally Israel? This is just an excuse to get Iraq’s oil.
- Bush is now undermining the United Nations. He is acting outside it, not withstanding the fact that the United Nations was the idea of President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. Both Bush, as well as Tony Blair, are undermining an idea which was sponsored by their predecessors. They do not care. Is it because the secretary-general of the United Nations [Ghanaian Kofi Annan] is now a black man? They never did that when secretary-generals were white.
- If there is a country that has committed unspeakable atrocities in the world, it is the United States of America. They don't care for human beings.
- What I am condemning is that one power, with a president [George W. Bush] who has no foresight, who cannot think properly, is now wanting to plunge the world into a holocaust.
- Israel should withdraw from all the areas which it won from the Arabs in 1967, and in particular Israel should withdraw completely from the Golan Heights, from south Lebanon and from the West Bank.
- I cannot conceive of Israel withdrawing if the Arab states do not recognize Israel, within secure borders.
- One of the reasons I am so pleased to be in Israel is as a tribute to the enormous contribution of the Jewish community of South Africa [to South Africa]. I am so proud of them.
The Leadership of Nelson Mandela
- Length: 2391 words (6.8 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
In the twenty first century, leaders are required to build a greater impression in which people believe in strategy, trust in management decisions, and trust in their work. Once people believe in management choice, there will be enthusiasm inside an organisation. Such an environment helps the organisation growing or flourish. A doing well leaders create a surroundings in cooperation inside and outside the organisation. (Subir chowdbhury management, 21c financial times prentice hall (2000)
The world hopeful in political leaders but unfortunately, a few of live up to the leadership main beliefs and values. In fact, a lot of political leaders seem to severely be deficient in numerous of the majority necessary leadership qualities.
This assay will be analysing on one of African president ever recognized as dedicated leader; who dedicated his entire life fighting for freedom of his nation. Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei in a small rural community in the easterner cape of South Africa. On 18july 1918 and named Nelson by one of his teachers, Mandela led the struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa against racial discrimination. As well know as a democratic leader he was incarcerated for 27 years. Has been awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1993 and 1994 Nelson Mandela been voted as South Africa first black president. (BBC news-Mandela’s life and times2008)
The assay will seem at his behaviour, characteristics as leader, and the style of his leadership at last relate his leadership with particular theory of leadership that is transformational leadership model.
Leadership is a function of personal and professional qualities (retrospection), the conception of a vision, structure and satisfying a sense of collective purpose, and make sure carrying out, with strategy and culture as two situational or contextual factors (cannon,2004; gil,2006)
Characteristics traits or personality
Mr. Nelson Mandela Charismatic personality he’s self determined, sense of humour, integrity, strong minded, intelligence, empathy, self nelson Mandela charisma encouraged people by changing their goals, values, need beliefs and objective he bring about this change by attempt to south Africa people self idea specifically make the people feel valued and personal identity the lack of resentment over cruel treatment received. Nelson Mandela spiritual strengths beliefs which show the integrity and willingness never to give up (BBC news – Mandela’s life and times 2008)
As admired leader
Mr. Nelson Mandela as peace maker struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa with multi-racial democracy, During
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the period of his incarceration sacrificed his family were he was absent in nurture of his children or in any feature of everyday life he has been shared with the world for his struggle for a nation not only for an individual or for own individual family.
Mr. Nelson Mandela believed that to be a freedom fighter one must supress many of personal feelings that make one feel separated individual rather than part for the liberation of millions of people, not glory for one individual. (Long walk for freedom chapter 11)
Not all freedom fighter live to see their struggle bring about the change they are fighter for in the life time’s sometimes they set the stage for the next generation to realize the fruits of their labour, social change happening when individual make change a choice to fight for justice and against oppression. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s & teachers’ guide p11)
Nelson Mandela growing up with tribal traditional costumes’ Mr Mandela erudite that listening to others ideas is most important than talk or make own decision without consulting others. Mandela’s ideas about resolving disagreement grew as developed common sense of individuality and vision for leading people. Has combined the tactic and procedure observed from tribal chiefs, formal education and experiences to the ways of ruling parties. Mr. Mandela observed the ways of oppressors and well-known that they did little to dishearten, and in fact give confidence division along with the different tribes or groups of black and Asian South Africans. This taught that leaders might use their power to bring people together or slash apart. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s & teachers’ guide p18.)
Nelson Mandela characterised by nature a peaceful and peace-loving man. But over the conduit of life’s exertion, has been forced to make hard choices in order to realize his final objective of a democratic South Africa. While the ANC’s preliminary policy was one of non-violence, over time felt forced to reconsider its effectiveness and accepted violent behaviour as a strategy for achieving goal for a South Africa, once returned to original guiding principle of non-violence has transformed from the period of apartheid government to a democratic rule Nelson Mandela as eventually the beneficiary, along with F.W. Deklerk, in 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. The subsequent year has been nominated as first black president of democratic South Africa. (Frontline; the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s & teachers’ guide p17)
Style of his leadership
under the democratic leadership style Where the focuses of leader is more with a group as a entire and better dealings within the group and leadership function are in collective with the part of team. The group member has a greater say in decision making, determination of police implementation of scheme and dealings (Laurie J. Mullins 2005).
Democratic leadership as a style whereby the leader persuade an open trusting and follower oriented relationship. Leaders who adopted encouraged followers to establish their own police provided them with a perspective by explaining in advance the procedures for accomplishing the goals and granted the followers independence to commence their own tasks and congratulating them in an objective manner. According to bass (1990) leaders adopting this leadership style were described as caring, considerate, and easy to compromise and they also had a sense of responsibility and attachment to their followers.
Many writers see transformational leadership as the similar thing as charismatic, creative thinker or inspirational leadership for instance, kreitner et al. Refers to a leadership as a transforming workers to pursue organisational goals over personality interest, Charismatic leaders followers by creating modification in their goal, values, needs beliefs and aspirations.
such as a new theory of leadership contain greater than recent years evolved as central to understanding leadership with emphasis on transformational leadership where leader stimulates group to change their motives, beliefs and values and capabilities so to the group own attention and individual goal turn into congruent with organisation (Bas 1985). An important characteristic of this leadership is charisma; and certainly conger and kanungo (1987) include developed leadership theory that particularly focuses on measurement. In bass (1990) transformational leadership as a behavioural procedure of being gain knowledge of management, it’s leadership practice with the purpose of methodical consisting of purposeful and prepared investigate for possible systematic examination and the aptitude to move about resources from areas of slighter to better production, (Bass 1990, P,53-4) the leader attain this simulation in by creating an consciousness of the task of organisation and develops group to higher level of ability and potential “ (Mandel and Pherwani 2003, P, 390) furthermore transformational leaders believed to encompass the aptitude to motivate, inspire, and hold up creativity in group. This become visible to subsist achieved throughout transformational leader illustrate evidence of a high degree of individualized thoughtfulness which “the degree to which leader attends to the group observe and listens to the leaders concern by acting as a counsellor (judge and Piccolo, 2004 P. 755)
Transformational leadership theory hold further by management author in the 1980 as method of efficiently carry in relation to organizational change (Avolio et al 1991; Bennis and Nanus, 1985; Tichy and Devanna; 1986 Tichy and Ulrich 1984) these study harassed that transformational leader lend a hand to realign the value and norms (Avolio et al; 1991, P.9) of an organisation endorse change. These value and norms are mainly precious while an organization comes across harsh disaster in motivating group in pursuing creative problem solving (Avolio et al; 1991). Organizational changes achieved throughout transformational leaders creating awareness of the goal and task of the organization, according to Mandel and Phewani (2003) this awareness allow group to appear further than own interest through afterwards benefits the group and eventually the organizational.
According to whitehead, for instance the most significant attribute that a high-quality leader inspiring people by create a environment where it’s acceptable for people to make mistakes and gain knowledge of them, rather than what happened in the ancient times which to hold responsibility and punish them. Leading from this position the acquisition of a high level of commitment from their people than mere compliance.
Adair argues with the purpose of truthfully inspirational leader should be aware of the spirit surrounded by all people encompass the possible for greatness; inspirational leader connects through the lead, appreciates the potential of others and during trust determination release the powers in others. Adair refers to the inspired instant acknowledgment and attack of a concise window of opportunity that can take action as an influential means to inspire mutually the leader and the led. (Laurie J. Mullins 2005)
Beginning visioning capabilities is an additional leadership skill is normally linked with efficiency. This ability consists of a leader being able to build up a strategic vision (Lombardo and McCauley. 1985 Kouzes and Posner. 1993). Bennis and Thomas conclude that individual achievement is partly connected to a leader’s ability to “come out others in shared sense” and that effective leaders are able to “mobilise workers” in a “distinct and convincing voice” (Bennis and Thomas, 2002 P 39). In addition to visioning skills Kotter (1996) recognized align and communicating way, motivating and inspiring workforce and producing useful change as significant leadership skills to be acquired. clearly goal achievement is moreover important (Boyatzis, 1982) on the other hand performance needs to be redirected toward strategic skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988) directed at implementing a vision (Hitt, 1988), rather than excessively focusing on technical skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988) According to Burns (2002) leaders must keep people focused on core values and mission and encourage continuous transformation of the organization as a means of pursuing its core mission.
Fundamental to system-control thinking is an idea of the chase of clear organisational goals designer by the manager or leader who then motivates others to act in ways which will achieve these goals. It is suggested that this difficult for a number of reasons. Such ways of thinking about leadership based upon a unitary view of organization and are thus motivated to act in ways that will ensure the understanding of such goals. Both transformational and charismatic leadership theories can be seen to uphold unitary assumptions. Essential to Bass’s theory the view of subordinates transcending self happiness for the goals of the organization, with Bas and Avolio (1994, p 3) for instance suggesting that “the (transformational) leader creates clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet up and likewise Conger and Kanango (1987). Although Bass and Avolio (1994) acknowledge that followers hold a various set of views, desires and aspirations, they suggest that through the use of inspirational motivation the leader talented to support diverse followers around a vision. Thus there remains a belief that high consensus can be achieved and thus conflict, negotiation and politics that are predictable in organizations tend to be marginalised remarkably, Barker (1997) remind of Burns’s (1978) definition of leadership which emphasises leadership as a practice which occurs within a context of competition and conflict. Interesting Bass’s theory of transformational leadership has built upon Burns’s work and thus far downplay important dimension. The following comment from a manager study highlights the realism of conflicting organisational goals. Managers in revision moreover often described the challenges in working with others who assumed very different views and the requirement of politic king to build support for facts: This would seem to advise a slightly different reality to ideas of consensus, cohesion and willing self-sacrifice for the greater high-quality. Moderately suggests an added complex, untidy realism where conflicts of interest succeed and as such the manager should occasionally behave in uncomfortable ways to persuade others of individual viewpoints. It may be argued that assumptions of a unitary organisation might simplify the reality that found organisation are somehow set and once achieved the work of the leader done. Again this seen to simplify the case. (Conger and Kanungo, 1987 p.46).
reliable with systems-control thinking theories of transformational and charismatic leadership present an individualistic conception of leadership, since the forces on the leader as special person. Indeed there centre on a talented individual apparently possession of almost phenomenal, magical powers that may perhaps seen to hypnotize group to act in conduct wanted by the leader. Words such as extraordinary unconventional and heroic characterize a description of leader behaviours. Bass (1985) p.47,48) for instance, highlights the extraordinariness of transformational, charismatic leader suggesting that the unusual vision of charismatic leaders that makes it possible for them to observe around corners stems from greater freedom from internal conflict while the normal manager is a continuing victim of their self doubts and personal traumas . Alimo-Metcalfe et al (2002) argued that new theory of leadership create dangerous myths since they create a view of leadership unapproachable to the majority usual mortals. Further, the thought that a leader should in several method gifted shows a weakening to accepted wisdom of leadership as an instinctive ability and as such suggests slight completed through way of teaching leadership indeed, in own employment found several managers who apparent leadership as an inspirational gift and therefore attempts to teach leadership were seen as limited.
A leadership in an attempt study explore the style used in large scale to find out the outcome styles in terms of extra effort effectiveness and satisfaction among employees
A transformational leader move up levels of understanding and consciousness about the meaning of value of necessary result s and habits of attainment encourage offering up personality interest for the sake of the group or organization. Leadership related directly to organisation task and objectives. Transformational leadership develop inspired way surroundings and creating a mutual vision that is clear and hopeful to employees. Leaders strength necessitates make over corporate strategic objectives into an individually concerned vision to motivate and convince reluctant workers of its value. The glowing communicated vision and ambition vital constituent of expecting new behaviours and new instructions for an organisation and it employees.