Essay About Yellow Colour Names

Yellow shines with optimism, enlightenment, and happiness.

Shades of golden yellow carry the promise of a positive future.

Yellow will advance from surrounding colors and instill optimism and energy, as well as spark creative thoughts.

HOW THE COLOR YELLOW AFFECTS US PHYSICALLY

  • Stimulates mental processes
  • Stimulates the nervous system
  • Activates memory
  • Encourages communication

CHAKRA COLORS: YELLOW IS THE COLOR OF THE SOLAR PLEXUS

Yellow is the color of the Solar Plexus Chakra, also known as Manipura.This chakra is located in the stomach area. It is linked to the stomach, liver, skin, large intestine, muscular system, and solar plexus area. The Solar Plexus Chakra is representative of vitality and will. When this chakra is open, it acts to empower a person and help them find their personal strength. It will help turn dreams and goals into reality. Gemstones that will aid the Solar Plexus Chakra include amber and citrine.

THE MEANING OF YELLOW AROUND THE GLOBE

  • In Chinese culture, colors corresponded with the five primary elements, the directions, and the four seasons. Yellow was associated with earth and the center (in relation to direction). The Chinese have placed a predominance upon the color yellow not seen elsewhere in the world. It was the color of emperors during both the Ming dynasty and the Qing dynasty. Huangdi, also known as the Yellow Emperor, is thought to be the founder of Chinese civilization, due to the tremendous amount of inventions that took place during his reign.
  • In India, yellow is the color of the Vaisya caste, or farmers, and is the color Hindus wear to celebrate the Festival of Spring.
  • During the tenth century in France, the doors of traitors and criminals were painted yellow.
  • In the United States, taxi cabs and school buses are associated with the color yellow.
  • During the 1357 Japanese “War of Dynasty,” warriors wore a yellow chrysanthemum as a pledge of courage.
  • Jews wore yellow armbands in Nazi concentration camps.
  • In Aztec culture, yellow symbolized food because it was the colur of corn, the primary food of the Aztec people.
  • Yellow signifies “sadness” in Greece’s culture and “jealousy” in France’s culture.

RELIGIOUS & MYTHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH YELLOW

  • Yellow is representative of “Greed” in Christianity.

POLITICAL ASSOCIATIONS OF YELLOW

  • The phrase “Yellow Dog Democrat” refers to a person who is a hard-core Democrat. This originates back to Southerners in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who disliked the Republicans. Such people would rather vote for a “yellow dog” than a Republican.
  • Yellow is the symbol for liberalism in many countries.

INTERESTING INFORMATION ABOUT YELLOW

  • Yellow is psychologically the happiest color in the color spectrum.
  • In medical terms, a yellow flag indicates a quarantine.
  • Yellow Stones: Amber, Calcite, Cat’s Eye, Citrine, Fluorite, Golden Beryl, Golden Yellow Topaz, Golden Tiger Eye, Iron Pyrite, Lemon Chrysoprase, Yellow Celestite, Yellow Danburite, Yellow Garnet, Yellow Jade, Yellow Jasper, Yellow Kunzite, Yellow Muscovite, Yellow Rhodonite, Yellow Sapphire, Yellow Tourmaline.
  • The comic book character Green Lantern was afraid of the color yellow.
  • Yellow is the color that means “elevated” in the color-coded threat system established by presidential order in March 2002. This system quickly informs law enforcement agencies when intelligence indicates a change in the terrorist threat facing the United States.
  • 75% of the pencils sold in the United States are painted yellow. Find out why…

YELLOW IN ATHLETICS AND SPORTS

  • A yellow flag is used in car racing to signal caution. Cars must remain in their current position when a yellow flag is shown.
  • A penalty is indicated in football when a referee throws a yellow flag onto the playing field.

COMPANIES OR BRANDS IDENTIFIED WITH YELLOW

POPULAR PHRASES THAT INCLUDE THE COLOR YELLOW

  • Yellowbellied: a cowardly manner
  • Yellow fever: a disease involving high fever and jaundice that is common in the tropics
  • Yellow jack: a flag flown on a vessel to show that it is under quarantine
  • Yellow dog contract: a contract which denies a person the right to join a worker’s union
  • Yellow journalism: newspaper articles thought to be sensationalized in order to sell more papers Why yellow?

{See our list of popular phrases that include color}

QUOTES ABOUT YELLOW

  • “Everyone knows that yellow, orange, and red suggest ideas of joy and plenty. I can paint you the skin of Venus with mud, provided you let me surround it as I will.” — Eugene Delacroix
  • “As a picture painted in yellow always radiates spiritual warmth, or as one in blue has apparently a cooling effect, so green is only boring.” — Wassily Kandinsky
  • “Oh yes! He loved yellow, did good Vincent…When the two of us were together in Arles, both of us insane, and constantly at war over beautiful colors, I adored red; where could I find a perfect vermilion?” — Paul Gauguin
  • “What a horrible thing yellow is.” — Edgar Degas

{See entire list of quotes about color}

WHAT IT SAYS ABOUT YOU WHEN YOU BUY A YELLOW VEHICLE

There is no question that the vehicle you drive is an extension of your personality — an unspoken, but clear message to the rest of the world. The message you send by driving a vehicle that is Sunshine Yellow:

  • Sunny disposition
  • Joyful
  • Young-at-heart

If, however, your vehicle is a Yellow-Gold, you give a different impression:

  • Intelligent
  • Warm
  • Loves comfort and will pay for it

From The Color Answer Book by Leatrice Eiseman with permission
{See what the color of the vehicle you buy says about you}

SONGS WITH YELLOW IN THE TITLE

  • “Big Yellow Taxi” by Joni Mitchell, covered by Amy Grant, covered by Counting Crows featuring Vanessa Carlton
  • “Black, Red, Yellow” by Pearl Jam
  • “Blue and Yellow” by The Used
  • “Don’t Eat the Yellow Snow” by Frank Zappa
  • “Double Yellow Line” by The Music Machine
  • “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road” by Elton John
  • “Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini” by Paul Vance and Lee Pockriss
  • “Mellow Yellow” by Donovan
  • “Tie A Yellow Ribbon” by Tony Orlando and Dawn
  • “Yellow Submarine” by the Beatles
  • “Black and Yellow” by rapper Wiz Khalifa

YELLOW IN THE GARDEN

  • Yellow is considered a warm color in landscape design.
  • Yellow’s appearance in the garden has a stimulating effect.
  • Yellow flowers come forward in the landscape, helping to make a large garden feel cozier.
  • Yellow lillies make for a bright, long blooming addition to any garden.
  • Yellow’s complimentary color in the garden is purple.

YELLOW AND OUR SENSE OF TASTE

Fruit comes to mind first for yellow foods, but there are also many yellow vegetables.

  • Wonderfully sweet with firm and creamy flesh, bananas come prepackaged in their own yellow jackets.
  • The exceptional juiciness and vibrant tropical flavor of the pineapple, which balances the tastes of sweet and tart, makes them only second to bananas as America’s favorite tropical fruit.
  • Juicy and sweet, with a soft, buttery, yet somewhat grainy texture, the white to cream-colored flesh of pears was once referred to as the “gift of the gods.”
  • We are just beginning to discover the wealth of nourishment supplied by the mildly sweet flavored and finely textured winter squash. It was once such an important part of the diet of the American Indians that they buried it along with the dead to provide them nourishment on their final journey to the afterlife.

YELLOW AND OUR SENSE OF SMELL

  • “Lemon” was the original scent of the yellow colored Magic Scents Crayons from Binney & Smith Inc., introduced in 1994 with mostly food scents. However, there were numerous reports that children were eating the food-scented crayons, so the food scents were retired and replaced with non-food scents. The scent for the color yellow became “daffodil.”
  • Lemon Peel: A very strong, fresh lemon scent. Great for summer, very refreshing. Aromatherapy benefits: Uplifting, refreshing, cheering, stimulating, rejuvenating. -Scent It.com

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 Discover More About The Meaning, Symbolism & Psychology Of Colors

This article is about the colour. For other uses, see Yellow (disambiguation).

For technical reasons, "Yellow #5" redirects here. For that title, see Yellow No. 5.

Yellow
 
Spectral coordinates
Wavelength575–585[1]nm
Frequency521–512 THz
    Colour coordinates
Hex triplet#FFFF00
sRGBB  (r, g, b)(255, 255, 0)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 100, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(60°, 100%, 100%)
SourceHTML/CSS[2]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Yellow is the colour between green and orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of roughly 570–590 nm. It is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in painting or color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, corn, canaries, daffodils, and lemons, as well as egg yolks, buttercups, and bananas. They absorb light energy and protect plants from photodamage. [3]Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun.

Because it was widely available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux cave in France has a painting of a yellow horse 17,000 years old. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs, then in the murals in Roman villas. [4] In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but was also associated with Judas Iscariot and was used to mark heretics. In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, and could be worn only by the Emperor and his household; special guests were welcomed on a yellow carpet.[5]

According to surveys in Europe, Canada, and the United States, yellow is the color people most often associate with amusement, gentleness, humor, and spontaneity, but also with duplicity, envy, jealousy, avarice, and, in the U.S., with cowardice. [6]In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness,[7] but also wisdom and connection.[8] In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory, harmony and wisdom .[9]

Etymology[edit]

The word yellow comes from the Old Englishgeolu, geolwe (oblique case), meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel-, as the words gold and yell; gʰel- means both bright and gleaming, and to cry out.[10]

The English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, and Swedish and Norwegian gul.[11] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.[12]

Science and nature[edit]

Optics, color printing, and computer screens[edit]

  • Color printing typically uses ink of four colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). When CMY "primaries" are combined at full strength, the resulting "secondary" mixtures are red, green, and blue

  • Mixing all three theoretically results in black, but imperfect ink formulations do not give true black, which is why an additional K component is needed.

  • An example of color printing from 1902. Combining images in yellow, magenta and cyan creates a full-color picture. This is called the CMYK color model.

  • On a computer display, yellow is created by combining green and red light at the right intensity on a black screen.

Yellow is found between green and orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers.

In color printing, yellow is one of the three colors of ink, along with magenta and cyan, which, along with black, can be overlaid in the right combination, along with black, to print any full color image. (See the CMYK color model). A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow (also known as "pigment yellow", "printer's yellow", and "canary yellow") subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Process yellow is not an RGB color, and there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color that is pure yellow ink.

The yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a completely different way; by combining green and red light at the right level of intensity. (See RGB color model).

Complementary colors[edit]

Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple; the two colors are opposite each other on the color wheel long used by painters.[13]Vincent Van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony.[14]

Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."[15] That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white (achromatic, non-colored) light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, however, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "Yellow and indigo blue" are complements.[16] Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."[17]

Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, and the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower (that is, the white of an ordinary incandescent light bulb). More typically, with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, which is the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow.

Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet.

Lasers[edit]

Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors.[18] In commercial products diode pumped solid state (DPSS) technology is employed to create the yellow light. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide (Nd:YVO4) or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) and induces it to emit at two frequencies (281.76 THz and 223.39 THz: 1064 nm and 1342 nm wavelengths) simultaneously. This deeper infrared light is then passed through another crystal containing potassium, titanium and phosphorus (KTP), whose non-linear properties generate light at a frequency that is the sum of the two incident beams (505.15 THz); in this case corresponding to the wavelength of 593.5 nm ("yellow").[19] This wavelength is also available, though even more rarely, from a helium–neon laser. However, this not a true yellow, as it exceeds 590 nm. A variant of this same DPSS technology using slightly different starting frequencies was made available in 2010, producing a wavelength of 589 nm, which is considered a true yellow color.[20] The use of yellow lasers at 589 nm and 594 nm have recently become more widespread thanks to the field of optogenetics.[21]

Astronomy[edit]

Stars of spectral classes F and G, such as our Sun, have color temperatures that make them look "yellowish".[22] The first astronomer to classify stars according to their color was F. G. W. Struve in 1827. One of his classifications was flavae, or yellow, and this roughly corresponded to stars in the modern spectral range F5 to K0.[23] The Strömgren photometric system for stellar classification includes a 'y' or yellow filter that is centered at a wavelength of 550 nm and has a bandwidth of 20–30 nm.[24][25]

Biology[edit]

Autumn leaves, yellow flowers, bananas, oranges and other yellow fruits all contain carotenoids, yellow and red organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria and some fungi. They serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis, and they protect the green chlorophyll from photodamage.[26]

In late summer, as daylight hours shorten and temperatures cool, the veins that carry fluids into and out of the leaf are gradually closed off. The water and mineral intake into the leaf is reduced, slowly at first, and then more rapidly. It is during this time that the chlorophyll begins to decrease. As the chlorophyll diminishes, the yellow and red carotenoids become more and more visible, creating the classic autumn leaf color.

Carotenoids are common in many living things; they give the characteristic color to carrots, corn, daffodils, rutabagas, buttercups and bananas. They are responsible for the red of cooked lobsters, the pink of flamingoes and salmon and the yellow of canaries and egg yolks.

Xanthophylls are the most common yellow pigments that form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group. The name is from Greek xanthos (ξανθος, "yellow") + phyllon (φύλλον, "leaf"). Xanthophylls are most commonly found in the leaves of green plants, but they also find their way into animals through the food they eat. For example, the yellow color of chicken egg yolks, fat, and skin comes from the feed the chickens consume. Chicken farmers understand this, and often add xanthophylls, usually lutein, to make the egg yolks more yellow.

Bananas are green when they are picked because of the chlorophyll their skin contains. Once picked, they begin to ripen; hormones in the bananas convert amino acids into ethylene gas, which stimulates the production of several enzymes. These enzymes start to change the color, texture and flavor of the banana. The green chlorophyll supply is stopped and the yellow color of the carotenoids replaces it; eventually, as the enzymes continue their work, the cell walls break down and the bananas turn brown.

Fish[edit]

  • Yellowtail is the common name for dozens of different fish species that have yellow tails or a yellow body.
  • Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a species of tuna, having bright yellow anal and second dorsal fins. Found in tropical and subtropical seas and weighing up to 200 kg (440 lb), it is caught as a replacement for depleted stocks of bluefin tuna.

Insects[edit]

  • The yellow-fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) is a mosquito so named because it transmits dengue fever and yellow fever, the mosquito-borne viruses.
  • Yellowjackets are black-and-yellow wasps of the genus Vespula or Dolichovespula (though some can be black-and-white, the most notable of these being the bald-faced hornet, Dolichovespula maculata). They can be identified by their distinctive black-and-yellow color, small size (slightly larger than a bee), and entirely black antennae.

Trees[edit]

  • Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen. Populus tremuloides is the most widely distributed tree in North America, being found from Canada to central Mexico.
  • The yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) is a birch species native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and southern Quebec west to Minnesota, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. They are medium-sized deciduous trees and can reach about 20 m (66 ft) tall, trunks up to 80 cm (31 in) in diameter. The bark is smooth and yellow-bronze,[27] and the wood is extensively used for flooring, cabinetry, and toothpicks.
  • The thorny yellowwood is an Australian rainforest tree which has deep yellow wood.
  • Yellow poplar is a common name for Liriodendron, the tuliptree. The common name is inaccurate as this genus is not related to poplars.
  • The Handroanthus albus is a tree with yellow flowers native to the Cerrado of Brazil.

History, art, and fashion[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

Yellow, in the form of yellow ochre pigment made from clay, was one of the first colors used in prehistoric cave art. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old.

Ancient history[edit]

In Ancient Egypt, yellow was associated with gold, which was considered to be imperishable, eternal and indestructible. The skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold. The Egyptians used yellow extensively in tomb paintings; they usually used either yellow ochre or the brilliant orpiment, though it was made of arsenic and was highly toxic. A small paintbox with orpiment pigment was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Men were always shown with brown faces, women with yellow ochre or gold faces.[28]

The ancient Romans used yellow in their paintings to represent gold and also in skin tones. It is found frequently in the murals of Pompeii.

Post-classical history[edit]

During the Post-Classical period, yellow became firmly established as the color of Judas Iscariot, the disciple who betrayed Jesus Christ, even though the Bible never describes his clothing. From this connection, yellow also took on associations with envy, jealousy and duplicity.

The tradition started in the Renaissance of marking non-Christian outsiders, such as Jews, with the color yellow. In 16th century Spain, those accused of heresy and who refused to renounce their views were compelled to come before the Spanish Inquisition dressed in a yellow cape.[29]

The color yellow has been historically associated with moneylenders and finance. The National Pawnbrokers Association's logo depicts three golden spheres hanging from a bar, referencing the three bags of gold that the patron saint of pawnbroking, St. Nicholas, holds in his hands. Additionally, the symbol of three golden orbs is found in the coat of arms of the House of Medici, a famous fifteenth century Italian dynasty of bankers and lenders.[30]

Modern history[edit]

18th and 19th centuries[edit]

The 18th and 19th century saw the discovery and manufacture of synthetic pigments and dyes, which quickly replaced the traditional yellows made from arsenic, cow urine, and other substances.

Circa 1776, Jean-Honoré Fragonard painted A Young Girl Reading. She is dressed in a bright saffron yellow dress. This painting is "considered by many critics to be among Fragonard's most appealing and masterly".[31]

The 19th-century British painter J.M.W. Turner was one of the first in that century to use yellow to create moods and emotions, the way romantic composers were using music. His painting Rain, Steam, and Speed – the Great Central Railway was dominated by glowing yellow clouds.

Georges Seurat used the new synthetic colors in his experimental paintings composed of tiny points of primary colors, particularly in his famous Sunday Afternoon on the Isle de la Grand jatte (1884–86). He did not know that the new synthetic yellow pigment, zinc yellow or zinc chromate, which he used in the light green lawns, was highly unstable and would quickly turn brown.[32]

The painter Vincent van Gogh was a particular admirer of the color yellow, the color of sunshine. Writing to his sister from the south of France in 1888, he wrote, "Now we are having beautiful warm, windless weather that is very beneficial to me. The sun, a light that for lack of a better word I can only call yellow, bright sulfur yellow, pale lemon gold. How beautiful yellow is!" In Arles, Van Gogh painted sunflowers inside a small house he rented at 2 Place Lamartine, a house painted with a color that Van Gogh described as "buttery yellow." Van Gogh was one of the first artists to use commercially manufactured paints, rather than paints he made himself. He used the traditional yellow ochre, but also chrome yellow, first made in 1809, and cadmium yellow, first made in 1820.[33]

At the end of the 19th century, in 1895, a new popular art form began to appear in New York newspapers; the color comic strip. It took advantage of a new color printing process, which used color separation and three different colors of ink; magenta, cyan, and yellow, plus black, to create all the colors on the page. One of the first characters in the new comic strips was a humorous boy of the New York streets named Mickey Dugen, more commonly known as the Yellow Kid, from the yellow nightshirt he wore. He gave his name (and color) to the whole genre of popular, sensational journalism, which became known as "yellow journalism".

    20th and 21st centuries[edit]

    In the 20th century, yellow was revived as a symbol of exclusion, as it had been in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Jews in Nazi Germany and German-occupied countries were required to sew yellow triangles with the star of David onto their clothing.

    In the 20th century, modernist painters reduced painting to its simplest colors and geometric shapes. The Dutch modernist painter Piet Mondrian made a series of paintings which consisted of a pure white canvas with a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines and rectangles of yellow, red, and blue.

    Yellow was particularly valued in the 20th century because of its high visibility. Because of its ability to be seen well from greater distances and at high speeds, yellow makes for the ideal color to be viewed from moving automobiles.[30] It often replaced red as the color of fire trucks and other emergency vehicles, and was popular in neon signs, especially in Las Vegas and in China, where yellow was the most esteemed color.

    In the 1960s, Pickett Brand developed the "Eye Saver Yellow" slide rule, which was produced with a specific yellow color (Angstrom 5600) that reflects long-wavelength rays and promotes optimum eye-ease to help prevent eyestrain and improve visual accuracy.[30]

    The 21st century saw the use of unusual materials and technologies to create new ways of experiencing the color yellow. One example was The weather project, by Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson, which was installed in the open space of the Turbine Hall of London's Tate Modern in 2003.

    Eliasson used humidifiers to create a fine mist in the air via a mixture of sugar and water, as well as a semi-circular disc made up of hundreds of monochromatic lamps which radiated yellow light. The ceiling of the hall was covered with a huge mirror, in which visitors could see themselves as tiny black shadows against a mass of light.[34]

    Fruits, vegetables, and eggs[edit]

    Many fruits are yellow when ripe, such as lemons and bananas, their color derived from carotenoid pigments. Egg yolks gain their color from xanthophylls, also a type of carotenoid pigment.

    Flowers[edit]

    Yellow is a common color of flowers.

    Other plants[edit]

    • Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape or oilseed rape, is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family).
    • Goldenrod is a yellow flowering plant in the family Asteraceae.

    Minerals and chemistry[edit]

    • Yellowcake (also known as urania and uranic oxide) is concentrated uranium oxide, obtained through the milling of uranium ore. Yellowcake is used in the preparation of fuel for nuclear reactors and in uranium enrichment, one of the essential steps for creating nuclear weapons.
    • Titan yellow (also known as clayton yellow),[35] chemical formula C
      28H
      19Na
      2O
      6S
      4 has been used to determine magnesium in serum and urine, but the method is prone to interference, making the ammonium phosphate method superior when analysing blood cells, food or fecal material.[36]
    • Methyl yellow (p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene) is a pH indicator used to determine acidity. It changes from yellow at pH=4.0 to red at pH=2.9.[37][38]
    • Yellow fireworks are produced by adding sodium compounds to the firework mixture. Sodium has a strong emission at 589.3 nm (D-line), a very slightly orange-tinted yellow.
    • Amongst the elements, sulfur and gold are most obviously yellow. Phosphorus, arsenic and antimony have allotropes which are yellow or whitish-yellow; fluorine and chlorine are pale yellowish gases.

    Pigments[edit]

    • Yellow ochre (also known as Mars yellow, Pigment yellow 42, 43),[39] hydrated ferric oxide (Fe
      2O
      3.H
      2O), is a naturally occurring pigment found in clays in many parts of the world. It is non-toxic and has been used in painting since prehistoric times.[40]
    • Indian yellow is a transparent, fluorescent pigment used in oil paintings and watercolors. Originally magnesium euxanthate, it was claimed to have been produced from the urine of Indian cows fed only on mango leaves.[41] It has now been replaced by synthetic Indian yellow hue.
    • Naples Yellow (lead antimonate yellow) is one of the oldest synthetic pigments, derived from the mineral bindheimite and used extensively up to the 20th century.[42] It is toxic and nowadays is replaced in paint by a mixture of modern pigments.
    • Cadmium Yellow (cadmium sulfide, CdS) has been used in artists' paints since the mid-19th century.[43] Because of its toxicity, it may nowadays be replaced by azo pigments.
    • Chrome Yellow (lead chromate, PbCrO
      4), derived from the mineral crocoite, was used by artists in the earlier part of the 19th century, but has been largely replaced by other yellow pigments because of the toxicity of lead.[44]
    • Zinc yellow or zinc chromate is a synthetic pigment made in the 19th century, and used by the painter Georges Seurat in his pointilist paintings. He did not know that it was highly unstable, and would quickly turn brown.
    • Titanium Yellow (nickel antimony titanium yellow rutile, NiO.Sb
      2O
      5.20TiO
      2
    Complements of yellow have a dominant wavelength in the range 380 to 480 nm. The green lines show several possible pairs of complementary colors with respect to different blackbody color temperature neutrals, illustrated by the "Planckian locus".
    Structure of Titan yellow
    Yellow ochre quarry in Roussillon, France
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